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* In this realm alone ostentation met with Roman approval. As Plutarch explains: In this realm alone ostentation met with Roman approval. As Plutarch explains: "For extravagance in other objects "For extravagance in other objects of display induces luxury and implants effeminacy in those who use them, since something like a p.r.i.c.king and tickling of the senses breaks down serious purpose; but when it is seen in the trappings of war it strengthens and exalts the spirit." of display induces luxury and implants effeminacy in those who use them, since something like a p.r.i.c.king and tickling of the senses breaks down serious purpose; but when it is seen in the trappings of war it strengthens and exalts the spirit."

* Nor was Cleopatra the first savvy Easterner to team up with a Roman general. Sertorius had joined forces with Mithradates, the Pontic king who in 69 so eloquently warned of Rome's rise. Mithradates too had envisioned precisely the sort of amalgamated empire Cleopatra and Antony represented. He put decades toward its realization, to be vanquished by Pompey. Pompey ultimately defeated Sertorius as well, after a vicious four-year campaign. Nor was Cleopatra the first savvy Easterner to team up with a Roman general. Sertorius had joined forces with Mithradates, the Pontic king who in 69 so eloquently warned of Rome's rise. Mithradates too had envisioned precisely the sort of amalgamated empire Cleopatra and Antony represented. He put decades toward its realization, to be vanquished by Pompey. Pompey ultimately defeated Sertorius as well, after a vicious four-year campaign.

* In the normal course of events he would have been preparing to depose his mother about now. In the normal course of events he would have been preparing to depose his mother about now.

* Caligula descended from both Mark Antony (his paternal great-grandfather) and Octavian (his maternal great-grandfather). He posed alternately as a descendant of each, depending on his agenda. It was easy to trip up under his reign, when sacrifices to celebrate Antony's overthrow might be objectionable one day, the reluctance to offer sacrifices to Augustus's victory the next. Caligula descended from both Mark Antony (his paternal great-grandfather) and Octavian (his maternal great-grandfather). He posed alternately as a descendant of each, depending on his agenda. It was easy to trip up under his reign, when sacrifices to celebrate Antony's overthrow might be objectionable one day, the reluctance to offer sacrifices to Augustus's victory the next.

* As ever, a capable woman was suspect. It would be As ever, a capable woman was suspect. It would be whispered that Livia whispered that Livia killed him. Curiously, she was said to have done so with poisoned figs. killed him. Curiously, she was said to have done so with poisoned figs.



* The practice of renaming months ended with The practice of renaming months ended with Tiberius Tiberius, who-urged to appropriate November-scoffed that all would become highly problematic if there turned out to be thirteen Caesars.

* She may well have known Aesop's fable: As the lion said to the Man, "There are many statues of men slaying lions, but if only the lions were sculptors there might be quite a different set of statues." She may well have known Aesop's fable: As the lion said to the Man, "There are many statues of men slaying lions, but if only the lions were sculptors there might be quite a different set of statues."

* Dante at least places her seven circles above her brother in h.e.l.l. Her sin (lust) was against herself. Her younger brother's (betrayal) was against another. Dante at least places her seven circles above her brother in h.e.l.l. Her sin (lust) was against herself. Her younger brother's (betrayal) was against another.





CHAPTER DISCUSSION